FOT

The principle of optical fiber

by:FOT     2020-07-07

integrated wiring system for the optical fiber used in glass multimode wavelength of 850 nm leds, transfer rate is 100 m/BPS, effective range of about 20 km. The fiber core and cladding consists of two kinds of optical properties of different media. The refractive index of a medium to light within the medium high refractive index than around it. The physics shows that on the interface of two kinds of medium, when light from a high refractive index into the side of the refractive index of the high side, as long as the incident Angle is greater than a critical value, reflection phenomenon occurs, the energy loss will not be. At this time the package in the outermost layer is like opaque material, to prevent the light to escape from the surface in the process of penetration. Only the small initial Angle of incidence of light have a refraction occurs, and in a very short distance is absorbed by the outer layers in clean. Current production of optical fiber, glass or plastic medium, medium can transfer all visible and part of the infrared spectrum. Made of fiber optic cable has a variety of structural form. There are two main types of short distance with the fiber optic cable, cable a layer structure is in the center with steel wire or nylon, outside the beam has a number of optical fibers, add a layer of plastic sheath outside; The other is a high density optical cable, it has a multilayer ribbon composite, each layer parallel laying a row of optical fiber ribbon. Made of fiber optic cable has a variety of structural form. There are two main types of short distance with the fiber optic cable, a kind of layer structure. With steel wire or nylon cable is in the center, outside the beam has a number of optical fibers, add a layer of plastic sheath outside; The other is a high density optical cable, it has a multilayer ribbon composite, each layer parallel laying a row of fiber optic equipment ribbon. 2, the optical fiber transmission process: injection by LED light-emitting diodes, or type of laser diode ILD signal light propagation along the optical media, on the other end has a PIN or APD photodiode as geophone receiving signal. Optical carrier modulation amplitude shift keying method, also called brightness modulation ( IntensityModulation) 。 Typically under a given frequency, with appearance and disappearance of light to represent two binary digits. Light-emitting diode LED and injection laser diode ILD signal can be modulated in this way, the PIN and ILD detector response intensity modulation directly. Power amplifier ─ ─ put optical amplifier in optical sender before, in order to improve the fiber optical power. The whole circuit system of optical power was improved. Online relay amplify ─ ─ when far away, the distance between buildings or larger floor can relay amplification effect, improve the optical power. Preamplifier ─ ─ in photoelectric detector at the receiving end after amplification, in order to improve the capacity. 3, optical fiber transmission characteristics: cable branch not easily, because is light transmission signal, so commonly used in point-to-point connections. Of optical fiber bus topology structure of the experimental system has been built for more, but the price is too expensive. In principle, due to the optical fiber is small, failure to reduce power loss, has the potential to larger bandwidth, and therefore, the general fiber optic equipment can support on the number of the tap is much larger than the twisted pair or coaxial cable. The low price and reliable transmitter is 0. 85 um wavelength light-emitting diode LED, can support 100 MBPS transmission rate and 1. Local area network (LAN) 5 ~ 2 km range. Laser diode transmitter cost is higher, and can't meet the requirements of millions of hours of life. Run at 0. 85 um wavelengths of light emitting diode detector receiver PIN is low. Avalanche photodiode signal gain is bigger than the PIN, but takes her 20 ~ 50 v power supply, and the PIN detector with 5 v power supply. If you want to achieve greater distances and higher speed, 1 is available. 3 um wavelength of system, the system damping is small, but is better than 0. 85 um wavelength your source system. In addition, to form a complete set of optical fiber connector is also very important, for each connector connection loss less than 25 db, easy to install, low prices. The core of the fiber and the pore size is larger, from the light emitting diode LED to receive the more light, its performance is better. Core diameter is 100 um, optical fiber cladding diameter is 140 um, can provide very good performance. The receiving light than in 62. 5/125 um fiber more than 4 db, eight more than 50/125 um fiber. 5分贝。 Run at 0. 8 um wavelength of fiber optic attenuation is 6 db/Km, running in 1. 3 um wavelength of fiber optic attenuation is 4 db/Km. 0. 8 um optical fiber bandwidth of 150 MHZ/Km, 1. 3 um optical fiber bandwidth of 500 MHZ/Km. Integrated wiring system, the main use of optical fiber as transmission medium is very appropriate, and it is necessary. Currently USES a light wavelength division multiplexing technology of WDM ( 波分多 丛) , you can reuse in a line, send, transmit more bits, generally by a byte eight parallel transmission, using different wavelengths for each bit stream, so it needs the support of the circuit can be run at low speed. Suitable for WDM optical fiber link byte device interface, is a kind of new data transmission system.


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