Fiber Bragg grating sensing technology introduction
fiber Bragg grating is in 1978 by Canadian communication research center of K. The invention of the Hill and others. He is the use of exposure ( Or lithography) Technology in is formed on the refractive index ( Or physical damage) The periodic distribution of structure, known as the grating. Fiber grating to the transmission of a specific wavelength of light reflection, due to the reflection wavelength Bragg diffraction equation, so called the grating Bragg grating ( 光纤布拉格光栅) FBG, English abbreviation.principle of fiber Bragg grating sensing
fiber grating period in hundreds of nm, when a broadband light source the light of the incident to the grating, the refractive index distribution of periodic structure leads to a specific wavelength of light reflection and the wavelength of reflected light by Bragg formula of
( 1) , type, respectively, and the fiber Bragg grating wavelength of reflection and effective refractive index and cycle.
when the environment temperature and fiber Bragg grating strain effect, reflection wavelength change of fiber grating, change the amount given by the type
( 2) , type, for valid elastic-optic coefficient, 11 and 12 p p as the elastic-optic coefficient, poisson's ratio for fiber core material, for the thermal expansion coefficient of elastomer, for the thermo-optic coefficient of the fiber, as the temperature changes, the axial strain of the fiber.
if, when the fiber Bragg grating is not affected by the strain effect ( 2) Type into
( 3) , at this point, the fiber Bragg grating can be used as a temperature sensor.
if the temperature and strain at the same time, by ( 2) Type available
( 4) 。
formula ( 4) Show that when the fiber Bragg grating is known resonance wavelength drift and the temperature change of the amount of fiber grating strain can be calculated, at this point, the fiber Bragg grating can be used as a strain sensor.advantages and characteristics of fiber grating sensing fiber Bragg grating device integration within the fiber, small volume, light weight, passive without electricity, is not afraid of dust, and has the ability of electromagnetic interference, and is not afraid of thunder and lightning, can be in inflammable and explosive and strong electromagnetic interference environment use; Using light wavelength encoding fiber Bragg grating sensor, using 'WDM', 'time division multiplexing' and 'air separation reuse technology, easy networking, fiber grating sensing network scale, particularly suitable for large structure application engineering, aerospace and aviation, etc; Fiber Bragg grating sensor signals for transmission over a long distance, the distance of a few tens of kilometers, suitable for use in a large structural engineering long-distance real-time online monitoring, especially suitable for no man's land, no electricity area and harsh environment for long-term monitoring; fiber optic equipment and carbon fiber material compatibility, can be embedded in composite material, composite material damage identification.
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