Cable testing 101 question-and-answer series 】
fiber optic equipment
is very important for the insertion loss and copper signal transmission of energy wastage by cable link used to be called attenuation -
'Webster's dictionary' (
Definition of the verb 'attenuation' for 'reduces the force, effect of something or numerical'.
The signal intensity decreased occur on any of the cable, is the transmission of any type (
Both electrical and data)
Occur when natural phenomena.
The longer the cable, the greater the attenuation.
Due to the attenuation is proportional to the length of the cable, so in the industry standard for wiring distance has clear limits.
The key is to ensure that the technical index of high insertion loss not to interfere with the signal or power right to arrive at the far end.
For the network cable, a more accurate method is to use the term 'insertion loss', refers to the loss of signal intensity on the far side of the link, all join in and channels (including cable
For example, connectors and connector)
Cause attenuation, as well as the signal reflection caused by the loss of signal.
In addition to the term correction, limit, test methods and requires no change.
Insertion loss of the said unit is decibels (
, is measured in copper and fiber optic certification test of a performance parameter, but with a key difference between.
We deeply know the next.
What are the differences?
Compared with copper cable, fiber optic insertion loss is very low, so is widely used in long and remote backbone network application.
For example, when the distance of 100 meters, optical signal loss is only about 3% of the original signal strength, and the same distance 6 a kind of signal loss of copper is about 94% of the original signal strength.
Another key difference is the insertion loss of copper change with the frequency of the signal -
Signal frequency is higher, the greater the insertion loss of copper link.
Support, for example, 100 MHZ 5 e class copper at 100 MHZ bigger allows insertion loss is about 22 db, and support 250 MHZ 6 class the larger allows the insertion loss of the cable is slightly higher than 32 db.
In the copper wiring, the attenuation relations with wire gauge is also very big -
23 AWG cable attenuation ratio of the same length of 24 AWG (
Cable attenuation is small.
Therefore, for the application of high frequency, wire gauge also increase, 5 e class 24 awg cable is commonly, 6 a class of 22 or 23 awg.
Also because of this, new, popular and finer 28 awg cable requires a shorter distance, increases to compensate for the loss.
In addition, compared to solid core copper conductor, stranded cable attenuation 20 -
50%, so solid core wires used in copper channel a permanent link part of long-distance, stranded conductor is limited to a short jumper.
For copper wiring, attenuation is related to temperature.
When the higher temperature, the attenuation in all cable will increase, so the standard rules on the copper wiring more working temperature, or demand under the working conditions of high temperature will derating length index.
What are the similarities?
Although there are many different factors affecting the copper and fiber optic insertion loss, but no matter what kind of medium, long length and bad contact are two important reasons.
This fully shows that must strictly abide by the standard about the length of the requirements, and ensure the quality of the copper and fiber optic termination.
For copper, if only in the on line 4 a pair or two pairs of line insertion loss is higher, then has the problem of bad contact.
5000 CableAnalyzer ™ line showed that all the four pairs of cables in the insertion loss of trajectory, each pair of lines should be below the limit curve.
If all lines of the insertion loss of nearly equal, should check whether the length is too long.
For connector joint in the fiber core alignment is not accurate, or face pollution and existing gap, can cause the insertion loss.
In addition, is directly related to the process problems in the process of termination.
The basic testing, also known as level 1 certification, measuring the insertion loss of the whole article link.
If the link fails to pass the test of insertion loss, will need to use the optical time domain reflectometer (
Test, that is, level 2 certification, observe specific points and the wastage of the cable length.
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